Carl Castro

Associate Professor and Director, USC Center for Innovation and Research on Veterans and Military Families
Contact Information
City Center
Department of Study 
Community, Organization, and Business Innovation
PhD, University of Colorado
MA, University of Colorado
BA, Wichita State University

CARL A. CASTRO is an assistant professor, also serving as the director of the Center for Innovation and Research on Veterans & Military Families. Castro joined the faculty in 2013 after serving 33 years in the U.S. Army, where he obtained the rank of colonel. Castro began his military career as an infantryman in 1981. He served in a variety of research and leadership positions, including as director of the Military Operational Medicine Research Program, Headquarters, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Castro has completed two tours in Iraq, as well as peacekeeping missions to Saudi Arabia, Bosnia and Kosovo.

He is currently chair of a NATO research group on military veteran transitions, a Fulbright Scholar and member of several Department of Defense research advisory panels focused on psychological health. He is the current editor of Military Behavioral Health, the flagship academic journal about the biopsychosocial health and well-being of service members, veterans and military families. Castro has authored more than 150 scientific articles and reports in numerous research areas. His current research efforts focus on assessing the effects of combat and operations tempo (OPTEMPO) on soldier, family and unit readiness, and evaluating the process of service members’ transitions from military to civilian life.

Awards and Distinction
Fulbright Specialist, J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board (2014)
Selected Publications
Hawkins, S.A., Sullivan, K.S., Schuyler, A.C., Keeling, M., Kintzle, S., Lester, P.B., Castro, C.A. (in preparation) Thinking “big” about research on military families.
Porter, B., Hoge, C.W., Tobin, L.E., Donoho, C.J., Castro, C.A., Luxton, D.D., Faix, Dennis (in preparation). Measuring aggregated and specific combat exposures: Associations with post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol-related problems.
Keeling, M., Kintzle, S. & Castro, C.A. (in preparation). A qualitative study of veteran clients using employment and housing services in Southern California: Exploring the risk factors to persistent employment problems.

Schuyler, A.C., Kintzle, S., Keeling, M. & Castro, C. A. (in preparation). Military sexual trauma (MST) among veterans in Southern California, and associated health and behavioral outcomes

Castro, C.A., Wilcox, S., Souder, D., Kim, A. & Bruning, M. (in preparation). Joining Forces: An intercollegiate approach to teaching inter-professional, patient-centered military health care.

Atuel, H., Kintzle, S. & Castro, C.A. (in preparation). Tri-ethnic comparison of veterans’ military to civilian transition difficulty: The case for cultural competence.

Barr, N., Sullivan, K., Kintzle, S. & Castro, C. A. (under review). PTSD symptoms, suicidality and risk to life behavior in a mixed sample of pre and post 9/11 veterans. Journal of Trauma and Stress.

Sullivan, K., Barr, N., Kintzle, S. & Castro, C. A. (under review). Impact of mental and physical health on the family functioning of veterans. Journal of Marriage and Family.

Kintzle, S., Schuyler, A., C., Ray-Letourneau, D., Ozuna, S. M., Munch, C., Xintarianos, E., Hassan, A. M. & Castro, C. A. (in press). Sexual trauma in the military: Exploring PTSD and mental health service utilization in female veterans. Psychological Services.

Britt, T.W., Herleman, H.A., Odle-Dusseau, H.N., Moore, D., Castro, C.A. & Hoge, C.W. (under review). How stressful events at work may produce benefits that reduce mental health symptoms. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

Castro, C.A., Kintzle, S. & Hassan, A.M. (accepted). The combat veteran paradox. Traumatology.

Kintzle, S., Oh, H., Wilcox, S., Hassan, A. M., Ell, K., & Castro, C. A. (in press). Civilian unemployment and mental health: The moderating impact of alcohol misuse in returning National Guard. Military Medicine.

Castro, C. A., Kintzle, S., Schuyler, A. C., Lucas, C. L. & Warner, C. H. (2015). Sexual Assault in the military. Current Psychiatry.

Hoge, C.W. & Castro, C.A. (2014). Treatment of generalized war-related health concerns: Placing TBI and PTSD in context. Journal of the American Medical Association, 312, 6670-6672. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.6670.

McGurk, D., Sinclair, R., Thomas, J.L., Bliese, P.D., Merrill, J.C., & Castro, C.A. (2014). Destructive and supportive leadership in extremis: Relationships with post-traumatic stress during combat operations. Military Behavioral Health, 2, 24-256. DOI: 10.1080/21635781.2014.963765.

Castro, C.A. & Kintzle, S. (2014). Suicides in the Military: The Post-Modern Combat Veteran and the Hemingway Effect. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16, 460-469. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-014-0460-1.

Castro, C.A. (2014). The U.S. framework for understanding, preventing, and caring for the mental health needs of service members who served in combat in Afghanistan and Iraq: A brief review of the issues and research. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5, 24713. DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v5.24713.

Vermetten, E., Greenberg, N., Boeschoten, M.A., Delanhije, R., Jetly, R., Castro, C.A. & McFarlane, A.C. (2014).  Deployment-related mental health support: comparative analysis of NATO and allied ISAF partners. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5, 23732. DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v5.23732.

Huffman, A.H., Payne, S.C., Koehly, L.M., Culbertson, S.S. & Castro, C.A. (2014). Examining time demands and work-family conflict on psychological distress. Military Behavioral Health, 2, 26-32. DOI: 10.1080/21635781.2013.844662.

Adler, A.B., Delahaij, R., Bailey, S.M., Vanden Berge, C., Parmak, M., van Tuessenbroek, B., Puente, J.M., Landratove, S., Kral, P., Kreim, G. Rietdijk, D., McGurk, D. & Castro, C.A. (2013). NATO survey of mental health training in army recruits. Military Medicine, 178, 760-766. DOI: 10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00549.

Wilk, J.E., Bliese, P.D., Thomas, J.L., Wood, M., McGurk, D., Castro, C.A., & Hoge, C.W. (2013). Unethical battlefield conduct reported by Soldiers serving in the Iraq War: A combat model for the development of misconduct. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201, 259-265. DOI: 10.1097/NMC.0b013e318288d302.

Foran, H. M., Garber, B. G., Zamorski, M. A., Wray, M., Mulligan, K., Greenberg, N., Castro, C.A., & Adler, A. B. (2013).  Post-Deployment Military Mental Health Training:  Cross-national Evaluations.  Psychological Services, 10,152-160. DOI:10.1037/a0032609.

Odle-Dusseau, H., Herleman, H., Britt, T. W., Moore, D., Castro, C.A., & McGurk, D. (2013). Family-supportive work environments and psychological strain: A longitudinal test of two theories. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 27-36. DOI:10.1037/a00308003.

Adler, A.B., & Castro, C.A. (2013).  The Occupational Mental Health Model for the Military.  Military Behavioral Health, 1, 1-11.  DOI:10.1080/21635781.2012.721063.

Castro, C.A., Adler, A.B., McGurk, D. & Bliese, P.D. (2012).  Mental health training with soldiers four months after returning from Iraq:  Randomization by platoon.  Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 376–383.  DOI: 10.1002/jts.21721.

Adler, A.B., Bliese, P.B., & Castro, C.A. (Eds.) (2011).  Deployment Psychology:  The Impact of Combat on Mental Health.  Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Peterson, C., Park, N & Castro, C.A. (2011).  Assessment for the U.S. Army comprehensive soldier fitness program: global assessment tool.  American Psychologist, 66, 10-18.  

Melamed, B. & Castro, C.A. (2011).  Observations and insights about strengthening our soliders (SOS).  Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 18, 210-223.

Riviere, L.A., Kendall-Robbins, A., McGurk, D., Castro, C.A., & Hoge, C.W. (2011).  Coming home may hurt: risk factors for mental ill health in US reservists after deployment in Iraq. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198, 136-142.

Bliese, P.D., Thomas, J. L., McGurk, D., McBride, S., & Castro, C.A. (2011).  Mental health advisory teams: A proactive examination of mental health during combat deployment.  International Review of Psychiatry, 23, 127-134.

Adler, A.B., Britt, T.W., Castro, C.A., McGurk, D., & Bliese, P.D. (2011).  Effect of transition home from combat on risk-taking and health-related behaviors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 381-389. DOI: 10.1002/jts.20665.

Kim, P.Y., Thomas, J.L., Wilk, J.E., Castro, C.A. & Hoge, C.W. (2010).  Stigma, barriers to care, and use of mental health services among active duty and National Guard soldiers after combat.  Psychiatric Services, 61, 582-586.

Santiago, P.N., Wilk, J.E., Milliken, C.S., Castro, C.A., Engle, C.C. & Hoge, C.W. (2010).  Screening for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related behaviors among combat veterans.  Psychiatric Services, 61, 575-581.

Garvey Wilson, A.L., Hoge, C.W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J.L., Clark & Castro, C.A. (2010).  Stability of combat exposure recall in operation Iraqi freedom veterans. Annals of Epidemiology, 20, 939-947.

Garvey Wilson, A.L., Hoge, C.W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J.L., Clark, J.C. & Castro, C.A. (2010). Application of a new method for linking anonymous survey data in a population of soldiers returning from Iraq.  Annals of Epidemiology, 20, 931-938.

Picchioni, D., Cabrera, O.A., McGurk, D., Thomas, J.L., Castro, C.A., Balkin, T.J., Bliese, P.D., & Hoge, C.W. (2010). Sleep symptoms as a partial mediator between combat stressors and other mental health symptoms in Iraq War veterans.  Military Psychology, 22, 340-355. DOI: 10.1080/089956052010491844.

Wilk, J.E., Thomas, J.L., McGurk, D., Riviere, L.A., Castro, C.A., &Hoge, C.W. (2010). Mild traumatic brain injury (concussion) during combat: Lack of association of blast mechanism with persistent post-concussive symptoms. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25, 9-14. DOI: 10.1097/HTR.0b013e3181bd090f.

Thomas, J.L., Wilk, J.E., Riviere, L.A., McGurk, D., Castro, C.A., &Hoge, C.W. (2010). Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard Soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 614-623.

Wilk, J.E., Thomas, J.L., McGurk, D., Riviere, L.A., Castro, C.A., & Hoge, C.W.  (2010). Mild traumatic brain injury (concussion) during combat: Lack of association of blast mechanism with persistent post-concussive symptoms. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25, 9-14.  DOI: 10.1097/HTR.0b013e3181bd090f.

Killgore, W.D., Castro, C.A., & Hoge, C.W. (2010). Preliminary normative data for the evaluation of risks scale – bubble sheet version (EVAR-B) for large-scale surveys of returning combat veterans. Military Medicine, 175, 725-735. 

Cabrera, O.A., Bliese, P.D., Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., & Messer, S.C. (2010).  Aggressiveness and perceived martial quality: The moderating role of a family-supportive work climate. Military Psychology, 22, 57-67.

McKibben, E.S., Britt, T.W., Hoge, C.W., & Castro, C.A. (2009).  Receipt and rated adequacy of stress management training is related to PTSD and other outcomes among Operational Iraqi Freedom Veterans. Military Psychology, 21, 2, S68 –S81.

Adler, A.B., Bliese, P.D., McGurk, D., Hoge, C.W., & Castro, C.A. (2009).  Battlemind debriefing and Battlemind training as early interventions with soldiers returning from Iraq: Ramdomization by platoon.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 928-940. doi:10.1037/a0016877 [Supplemental materials:].

Hoge, C.W., Goldberg, H.M., & Castro, C.A.  (2009).  Care of veterans with mild traumatic brain injury---flawed perspectives.  New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 1588-1591.

Wright, K.M., Cabrera, O.A., Adler, A.B., Bliese, P.D., Hoge, C.W., & Castro, C.A.  (2009).  Stigma and barriers to care in Soldiers postcombat.  Psychological Services, 6, 108-116.

Adler, A.B., Castro, C.A., & McGurk, D.  (2009).  Time-driven Battlemind psychological debriefing: A group-level early intervention in combat.  Military Medicine, 174, 121-129.

Killgore, D.C., Cotting, D.I., Vo, A.H., Castro, C.A., & Hoge, C.W. (2008).  Post-combat invincibility syndrome: violent combat experiences are associated with increased risk-taking propensity following deployment.  Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42, 1112-1121.

Hoge, C.W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J.L., Cox, A., Engel, C.C., & Castro, C.A.  (2008).  Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq.  The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453-463.

Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, A.B., Cabrera, O., Castro, C.A., & Hoge, C.W.  (2008).  Validating the primary care posttraumatic stress disorder screen and the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist with soldiers returning from combat.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 272-281.

Eaton, K.M., Hoge, C.W., Messer, S.C., Whitt, A.A., Cabrera, O.A., McGurk, D., Cox, A., & Castro, C.A.  (2008).  Prevalence of mental health problems, treatment need, and barriers to care among primary care-seeking spouses of military service members involved in Iraq and Afghanistan deployments.  Military Medicine, 173, 1051-1056.

Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M., Brink, S., Nguyen, Q.B., Rath, J., Cox, A., Hoge, C.W., & Castro, C.A. (2008).  Perceived stigma and barriers to care for psychological treatment: Implications for reactions to stressors in different contexts, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 317-335.

Huffman, A.H., Culbertson, S.S., & Castro, C.A. (2008).  Family-friendly environments and U.S. Army soldier performance and work outcomes.  Military Psychology, 20, 253-270.

Huffman, A.H., Youngcourt, S.S., Payne, S.C., & Castro, C.A. (2008).  The importance of construct breadth when examining interrole conflict.  Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 515-530.

Cabrera, O., Bliese, P.D., Messer, S. Hoge, C.W., & Castro, C.A. (2007).  Childhood adversity as a predictor of depression and post-traumatic stress in deployed troops.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2), 77-81. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.

Johannes, B., Wittels, P., Enne, R., Eisinger, G., Castro, C.A., Thomas, J.L., Adler, A.B., & Gerzer, R.  (2007).  Non-linear function model of voice pitch dependency on physical and mental load.  European Journal of Applied Physiology, 101, 267-276.

Stetz, M.C., Castro, C.A., & Bliese, P.D.  (2007).  The impact of deactivation uncertainty, workload, and organizational constraints on reservists’ psychological well-being and turnover intentions.  Military Medicine, 6, 576-580.

Hoge, C.W., Terhakopian, A., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., & Engel, C.C.  (2007).  Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with somatic symptoms, health care visits, and absenteeism among Iraq War veterans.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 150-153.

Castro, C.A. & McGurk, D.  (2007).  Suicide prevention down range: A program assessment.  Traumatology, 13, 32-36.

Castro, C.A., & McGurk, D.  (2007).  Battlefield Ethics.  Traumatology, 13, 24-31.

Castro, C.A., & McGurk, D. (2007).  The intensity of combat and behavioral health status.  Traumatology, 13, 6-23.

Hoge, C.W., Terhakopian, A., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., & Engel, C.C.  (2007).  Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with somatic symptoms, health care visits, and absenteeism among Iraq War veterans.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 150-153.

Greene, T.M., Britt, T.W., & Castro, C.A.  (2007).  The stigma of mental health problems in the military.  Military Medicine, 172, 157-161.

Britt, T.W., Dickinson, J.M., Castro, C.A., & Alder, A.B. (2007).  Correlates and consequences of morale versus depression under stress conditions.  Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 34-47.

Burrell, L.M., Adams, G.A., Durand, D.B., & Castro, C.A. (2007).  The impact of military lifestyle demands on well-being, Army, and family outcomes.  Armed Forces and Society, 33, 43-58.

Britt, T.W., Castro, C.A., & Adler, A.B. (Eds.) (2006).  Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat. Vol. 1: Military performance.  Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Adler, A.B., Castro, C.A., & Britt, T.W. (Eds.) (2006).  Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat. Vol. 2: Operational stress.  Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Castro, C.A., Adler, A.B., & Britt, T.W. (Eds.) (2006).  Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat. Vol. 3: The military family.  Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Britt, T.W., Adler, A.B., & Castro, C.A. (Eds.) (2006).  Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat. Vol. 4: Military culture.  Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Killgore, D.S., Stetz, M.C., Castro, C.A., & Hoge, C.W. (2006).  The effects of prior combat experiences on the expression of somatic and affective symptoms in deploying soldiers.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 379-385.

Killgore, D.S., Vo, A.H., Castro, C.A., & Hoge, C.W. (2006).  Assessing risk propensity in American soldiers: Preliminary reliability and validity of the evaluation of risks (EVAR) scale---English version.  Military Medicine, 171, 233-239.

Adler, A.B., Castro, C.A. & Britt, T.W. (2005). Self-engagement, stressors, and health: a longitudinal study.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1475-1486.

Britt, T.W., Adler, A.B., & Castro, C.A. (2005).  Job engagement as a buffer against the negative effects of a high workload: A longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1475-1486.

Huffman, A.H., Adler, A.B., Dolan, C.A., & Castro, C.A. (2005).  The impact of operations tempo on turnover intentions of Army personnel.  Military Psychology, 17, 175-202.

Dolan, C.A., Adler, A.B., Thomas, J.L., & Castro, C.A. (2005).  Operations tempo and soldier health: The moderating effect of wellness behaviors.  Military Psychology, 17, 157-174.

Thomas, J.L., Adler, A.B., & Castro, C.A. (2005).  Measuring operations tempo and relating it to military performance. Military Psychology, 17, 137-156.

Castro, C.A., & Adler, A.B.  (2005).  Operations tempo (OPTEMPO).  Military Psychology, 17, 131-136. [special issue guest editors]

Allison-Aipa, T.S., De La Rosa, G.M., Stetz, M.C., & Castro, C.A. (2005).  The impact of National Guard activation for homeland defense: employers’ perspective.  Military Medicine, 170, 846-850.

Wright, K.M., Thomas, J.L., Adler, A.B., Ness, J.W., Hoge, C.W., & Castro, C.A. (2005).  Psychological screening procedures for deploying U.S. forces.  Military Medicine, 170, 555-562.

Adler, A.B., Huffman, A.H., Bliese, P.D., & Castro, C.A. (2005).  The impact of deployment length and deployment experience on the well-being of male and female military personnel.  Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(2), 121-137.

Adler, A.B., Thomas, J.L., & Castro, C.A. (2005).  Measuring up: Comparing self-reports with unit records for assessing soldier performance.  Military Psychology, 17, 3-24.

Britt, T.W., Davison, J., Bliese, P.D., & Castro, C.A. (2004).  How leaders can influence the impact that stressors have on soldiers.  Military Medicine, 7, 541-545.

Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I., & Koffman, R.L. (2004).  Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care.  New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13-22.