Iris Chi

Contact Information
University Park
City Center
Department of Study 
Adults and Healthy Aging
Research Interest 
Behavioral Health
Chinese-American Golden Age Association/ Dr. Frances Wu Endowed Chair
DSW, University of California, Los Angeles, 1985
MSW, California State University, San Diego, 1981
BSS, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1978

IRIS CHI was installed as the Chinese-American Golden Age Association/Frances Wu Chair for the Chinese Elderly in 2004 and currently directs the China Program. She also has a joint appointment in the USC Davis School of Gerontology. Prior to joining USC, she taught at the University of Hong Kong for 17 years, in addition to chairing the postgraduate research programs and serving as the director of the Sau Po Centre on Aging.

An expert in elderly health and gerontology, Dr. Chi has participated in more than 60 studies and published more than 150 articles on such topics as long-term care, mental health chronic illness, community service, social support, dementia, Parkinson's disease and minimum data set (MDS). She has also been involved in seven cross-national collaborative research projects.

A career milestone came in 2004 when the city of Hong Kong honored Dr. Chi with the prestigious Bronze Bauhina Star for her public and community service with the city's aging population. She has also earned a Certificate of Merit for Housing Research from the Hong Kong Institute of Planners, the Outstanding Research in Gerontology Award from the Hong Kong Association of Gerontology and the Best Research of the Year Award from the Hong Kong College of General Practitioners. As a result of her extensive work and expertise, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government appointed her to the Elderly Commission, a post she held for seven years.

Dr. Chi is an honorary professor, member, consultant and advisor to more than 30 local and overseas elderly-related organizations such as the World Health Organization, Peking University and University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada. Among the organizations funding her efforts to provide professional training for elder care, training and accreditation for standardized care need assessors are the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charitable Foundation; Social Welfare Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government; China National Aging Committee, People's Republic of China; and Beijing Civil Affairs Bureau, People's Republic of China.

She is also an expert reviewer and editorial board member for The Gerontologist, International Journal of Social Welfare, Journal of Social Work Practice, Evaluation and Geriatrics and Gerontology International. In addition, Dr. Chi serves on the Commission on Curriculum and Educational Innovation for the Council on Social Work Education, chairs the nomination committee for the International Association of the Schools of Social Work and was appointed an external examiner for Women's College in Beijing. Most recently, she was elected a national research mentor for the Hartford Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program and appointed to the National Program Advisory Committee for the Hartford Doctoral Fellows.

A frequent lecturer in many universities throughout Asia, Dr. Chi presently teaches aging-related courses in the USC Master of Social Work program.

While studying sociology at Chinese University of Hong Kong, Dr. Iris Chi became increasingly aware of issues surrounding ageism and inequality. Concerned that a disproportionate amount of attention and resources was being directed toward children and young people, she began to focus on problems faced by older populations, such as chronic illness, poor mental health and a lack of social support. Chi’s experiences during a field placement in a family service unit of a public welfare organization in Hong Kong bolstered her desire to work with aging groups.

While reading the file of her first client, a woman in her late 70s who had applied for housing assistance, Chi had the impression that she was frail, poor, sad and lonely. The woman lost her husband and three children during World War II, had no other close relatives, and worked as a maid her entire life. Although she had adopted a son and supported his education, he had essentially abandoned her. But once Chi met the woman, she realized her assumptions were completely wrong. While physically weak, the woman lived an independent, dignified and content life. “It made me realize how little I knew about older adults,” Chi says.

After earning her master’s degree and doctorate in social work from San Diego State University and UCLA, respectively, Chi went on to teach at the University of Hong Kong for 17 years. She enhanced her reputation as an expert on elderly health and gerontology, participating in dozens of studies and publishing hundreds of articles on mental health, dementia, elderly suicide and social support. In addition to directing the first research and training center on aging in the region, she helped transition the MSW program to a problem-based learning model and chaired one of the largest postgraduate research programs. Based in part on her recommendations, government officials and nongovernmental organizations developed elderly suicide prevention programs, resulting in lower suicide rates among aging groups in Hong Kong and China.

In 2004, Chi joined the USC School of Social Work and has continued to investigate issues that affect older populations from a mind-body-spirit perspective. She leads the China Program, an effort to encourage cultural and multidisciplinary collaboration, and views cultural exchange as critical to social work practice. “As social workers, we can’t do a good job of helping people from another culture without understanding how the other culture perceives and reacts to a social problem,” she says. “International social work allows us to learn different ways of dealing with social problems so we are not confined to our own ways of problem solving.”

As she continues her research career at USC, Chi plans to explore new topics of inquiry, including long-term care and intergenerational relationships. Having led postgraduate programs in the past, she enjoys working closely with students and often involves them in her research proposals and publications.

Awards and Distinction
Distinguished Visiting Scholar, University of Hong Kong & City University of Hong Kong (2010-2011)
Outstanding paper, 18th Annual Congress of Gerontology, Hong Kong Association of Gerontology (2010)
Fellow, Gerontological Society of America (2010-present)
Gary Andrews Fellow, Australian Association of Gerontology (2010-present)
Honorary Professor, Renmin University of China, Beijing (2010-present)
Sterling C. Franklin Award for Distinguished Faculty, University of Southern California (2009)
Special Research Fellow, Social Policy Research Center, College of Social Sciences, National Taiwan University (2007-present)
Advisory Committee Member, Center of Research on Disability and Development, China (2006-present)
Mellon Awards for Excellence in Mentoring, USC (2006)
Bronze Bauhinia Star, The Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2004)
International Consultant, Sau Po Centre on Aging and The Hong Kong Jockey Club Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, The University of Hong Kong (2003-present)
Honorary Professor, East China University of Science and Technology (2002-present)
Honorary Professor, Peking University (2002-present)
Honorary Professor, Fudan University (2002-present)
Honorary Professor and Research Fellow, China National Ageing Committee, Beijing (2002-present)
Fellow of interRAI, University of Michigan (2000-present)
Justice of Peace, The Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2000-present)
Honorary Professor, East China Normal University, Shanghai (1997-2002)
IPA Awards for Research in Psychogeriatrics, 11th Congress of International Psychogeriatrics Association (2003)
Honorary Professor and Research Fellow
Outstanding Paper Award, Hong Kong Institute of Gerontology (2002)
Consultant and Mentor, China-Rochester Suicide Research Centre, University of Rochester (2001-2008)
Distinguished Fellow, K C Wang Education Foundation Fund, East China Normal University and Fudan University, Shanghai (1992/2001)
Outstanding Teaching Award, Faculty of Social Sciences, The University of Hong Kong (1999-2001)
Temporary Adviser and Consultant, WHO Kobe Centre for Health Development, Japan. WHO Western Pacific Regional Office, Philippines and WHO Headquarter Ageing and Life Course Programme, Geneva (1999-2004 )
Honorary Professor and Associated Health Researcher, Center on Aging, University of Victoria, BC, Canada (1999-present)
Award for Outstanding Research in Gerontology, Hong Kong Association of Gerontology (1997)
Certificate of Merit for Housing Research, Hong Kong Institute of Planners (1997)
Best Research of the Year, The Hong Kong College of General Practitioners (1994)
More awards
Selected Publications

Lou, V. W. and Chi, I. (in press). Roles and functions of grandparent. In Grandparenting in Asia, edited by K. Mehta & L.L. Tong. Springer.

Chi, I. (in press). Cross-cultural gerontology research methods: Challenge and solution. In Methodologies for Diverse Ageing Population, edited by K. Mehta & A. Lee.

Liu, B.C., Leung, D.S. & Chi, I. (in press). Social functioning, polypharmacy and depression in older Chinese primary care patients. Aging and Mental Health.

Guo, M., Chi, I. & Silverstein, M. (in press). Family as a Context: The Influence of Family Composition and Family Geographic Dispersion on Intergenerational Relations among Chinese Elderly. International Journal of Social Welfare.

Leung, D.Y.P., Leung, A. & Chi, I. (in press). Factor structure of Instrumental ADL Involvement and Capacity Scale of the Minimum Data Set for Home Care (MDS-HC) in Hong Kong. Home Health Care Services Quarterly.

Lou, V., Kwan, C.W., Leung, A. & Chi, I. (in press). Psychological distress of Chinese children caregivers: The role of behavioral and cognitive components of care. Home Health Care Services Quarterly.

Zhou, L., Chi, I. & Silverstein, M. (in press). The Impact of Intergenerational Monetary Transfers on Health Service Utilization among Older Adults in Rural China. Journal of Aging and Health.

Leung, A., Lou, V., Kwan, C.W. & Chi, I. (in press). Health care needs of community care service recipients. Community Home Health Care.

Cheung, K., Yip, P., Chi, I., Chui, E., Leung, A., Chan, F. & Chan, G. (in press). Factors associated with healthy longevity – A study of oldest-old and centenarians in Hong Kong.

MacEntee, M.I., Marino, R., Minichiello, V., Kiyak, A. & Chi, I. (in press). Impact of immigration on the oral healthcare of senior Chinese immigrants in Melbourne and Vancouver. Cross-cultural Journal of Gerontology.

Leung, A., Chi, I., Chow, N.W.S., Parker, J. (in press). Effects of self-efficacy on health-related learning in Chinese population. Journal of Nursing Scholarship.

Li, Y. & Chi, I. (in press). Correlates of Physician Visits among Older Adults in China: The Effects of Family Support. Journal of Aging and Health.

Chi, I. (2011). Cross-cultural gerontology research methods: challenges and solutions. Ageing and Society. 31, 1-15.

Guo, M. & Chi, I. (2010). Does providing support to children enhance life satisfaction among older Chinese women? The role of perceived filial piety of children. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work. 19(4), 317-330.

Chi, I., Mui, C. & Chui (2010). Gerontological social work. Shanghai: Shanghai People's Publisher.

Chi, I. & Duran, P. (2010). Conducting aging research in China. In S. Chen & J.L. Powell (Eds.) Aging in Perspective and the Case of China: Issues and Approach. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Leung, A., Lou, V., Chen, K.S., Yung, A. & Chi, I. (2010). Care management service and falls prevention: A case-control study in a Chinese population. Journal of Aging and Health. 22(3), 348-361.

Leung, A., Chi, I., Lou, V.Q. & Chan, K.S. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors associated with falls among Chinese community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Health and Social Care in the Community. 18(3), 272-281.

Bai, Z.G., Yang, K., Tian, J., Ma, B., Liu, Y., Jiang, L., Tan, J., Liu, T.X., Chi, I. (2010). Bicarbonate versus lactate solutions for acute peritoneal dialysis. Cochrane Library, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD007034. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007034.pub2.

Liu, J., Chen, G., Chi, I., Wu, J., Pei, L., Song, X., Zhang, L., Pang, L., Han, Y. & Zheng, X. (2010). Regional variations in and correlates of disability-free life expectancy among older adults in China. BMC Public Health, (10), 446-454.

Yip, P., Cheung, K., Law, S., Chi, I. & Robin, J.M. (2010). The Demographic Window and Economic Dependency Ratio in the Hong Kong SAR. Asian Population Studies, 6(2), 241-260.

Wu, B., Chi, I., Plassman, B.L. & Guo, M. (2010). Depressive symptoms and health problems among Chinese immigrant elders in the U.S. and Chinese elders in China. Ageing and Mental Health. 14(6), 695-704.

Liu, H., Chi, I. & Xu, L. (2010). Factors associated with volunteerism among community living older adults in urban China. Social Development Issues. 32(1), 62-75.

Xu, L. & Chi, I. (2010). Intergenerational support and self-rated health among Chinese older adults in one-child families: Urban and rural differences. Social Development Issues. 32(1), 48-61.

Chi, I., Law, B., Leung, A., Liu, C., Leoh, C., Cheng, Y., Ma, A., Kwan, C. & Lai, C. (2010). Residential Assessment Instrument 2.0 in care planning for residents in nursing homes. Hong Kong Medical Journal. 16(2), 33-36.

Mjelde-Mossey, L.A., Chi, I., Lubben, J. & Lou, V.W. (2009). Relationship between productive activities, family relations and aging well for elders in China. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work.

Chan, K. & Chi, I. (2009). Long term care policy in Macao. Annual report on economy and society of Macao (2008-2009): Blue book of Macao. Macao: Macao Social Sciences Publication.

Liu, J., Chi, I., Chen, G., Song, X. & Zheng, X. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of functional disability in Chinese older adults. Geriatrics and Gerontology International. 9(3), 253-61.

Lou, V.W., Chui, E.W., Leung, A.Y., Kwan, C.W., Chi, I. & Leung Wong, E.K. (2009). Characteristics of elderly people who prefer to stay in the community. Asian Journal of Gerontology & Geriatrics. 4(1), 36-39.

Guo, M., Chi, I. & Silverstein, M. (2009). Intergenerational support of Chinese rural elders with migrant children: Does sons’ or daughters’ migration make a difference? Journal of Gerontological Social Work. 52(5), 534-554.

Lai, C.K., Yeung, J.H., Mok, V. & Chi, I. (2009). Special Care Units for dementia individuals with behavioural problems. Cochrane Review. 4.

Liu, J., Chen, G., Song, X., Chi, I. & Zheng, X. (2009). Trends in disability-free life expectancy among Chinese older adults. Journal of Aging and Health. 21(2), 266-285.

Feng, Z., Hirdes, J., Smith, T., Finne-Soveri, H., Chi, I., Du Pasquier, J., Gilgen, R., Ikegami, N. & Mor, V. (2009). Use of physical restraints and antipsychotic medications in nursing homes: A cross-national study. International Journal of Geriatrics Psychiatry. 24(10), 1110-1118.

Lou, W., Chui, W., Leung, Y., Tang, K., Chi, I., Leung, C. & Kwan, C. (2009). Final report on a study investigating factors that affect long-term care use in Hong Kong.: HKU Department of Social Work & Social Administration.

Mui, C., Chi, I. & Chui, E. (2008). Gerontological social work for the 21st century. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Chi, I. (2008). Preface. Handbook of measures for the Chinese elderly. Hong Kong: Sau Po Centre on Ageing, the University of Hong Kong.

Lou, V., Mjelde-Mossey, L.A. & Chi, I. (2008). The Chinese Tradition Scale. Handbook of measures for the Chinese elderly. Hong Kong: Sau Po Centre on Ageing, the University of Hong Kong.

Lai, C.K. & Chi, I. (2008). The Chinese version of the social engagement scale as a quality of life measurement for older nursing home residents with dementia. Handbook of measures for the Chinese elderly. Hong Kong: Sau Po Centre on Ageing, the University of Hong Kong.

Lou, V., Chi, I. & Mjelde-Mossey, L.A. (2008). The LIfe Satisfaction Scale for Chinese elders. Handbook of measures for the Chinese elderly. Hong Kong: Sau Po Centre on Ageing, the University of Hong Kong.

Lou, V., Chui, E.W., Leung, A.Y., Kwan, C., Chi, I. & Leung, E. (2008). Who choose to stay in community?. The 16th Annual Congress of Gerontology organized by Hong Kong Association of Gerontology. (pp. 31-35).

Chou, K., Leung, J.C. & Chi, I. (2008). Applying Resource Utilization Groups (RUG) in Hong Kong nursing homes. Canadian Journal of Ageing. 27, 233-239.

Chou, K., Macfarlane, D.J., Chi, I. & Cheng, Y. (2008). Barriers to exercise scale for Chinese older adults. Topics in Geriatrics Rehabilitation. 24(4), 295-304.

Leung, A., Chi, I. & Chiang, V. (2008). Chinese retirees’ learning interests: a qualitative analysis. Educational Gerontology. 34(12), 1105-1121.

Ling, D. & Chi, I. (2008). Determinants of work among older adults in China. Australasia Journal on Ageing. 27(3), 126-133.

Lou, V.W., Chi, I. & Mjelde-Mossey, L.A. (2008). Development and validation of a Life Satisfaction Scale for Chinese elderly. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 67(2), 149-170.

Abdullah, A.S., Lam, T., Chang, K., Leung, H., Chi, I., Ho, W.W. & Chan, S.S. (2008). Effectiveness of a mobile smoking cessation service in reaching elderly smokers and predictors of quitting. BMC Geriatrics. 81(1), 25-34.

Chu, L., Chi, A.Y. & Chi, I. (2008). Falls and subsequent health service utilization in community-dwelling Chinese older adults. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 46, 125-135.

Wu, B., Chi, I., Mjeld-Mossey, L. & Silverstein, N. (2008). Gender differences in contributory behaviors among the oldest-old Chinese in Shanghai. Ageing International. 32(1), 65-77.

Lou, V.W. & Chi, I. (2008). Measure grandparenthood stress and reward: developing a scale based on perceptions by grandparents. Geriatrics and Gerontology International. 8, 291-299.

Chu, L. & Chi, I. (2008). Nursing homes in China. Journla of the American Medical Directors Association. 9(4), 237-243.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2008). Reciprocal relationship between fear of falling and depression in elderly Chinese primary care patients. Aging and Mental Health.

Chi, I., Jordan-Marsh, M., Guo, M., Xie, B. & Zhang, M. (2008). Tai chi for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review. 2.

Lau, A.L., Chi, I., Cummins, R.A., Lee, T.M., Chou, K. & Chung, L.W. (2008). The SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) pandemic in Hong Kong: Effects on the subjective wellbeing of elderly and younger people. Journal of Aging and Mental Health. 12(6), 746-760.

Krochalk, P.C., Li, Y. & Chi, I. (2008). Widowhood and self-rated health among Chinese elders: The effect of economic condition. Australasia Journal of Gerontology. 27(1), 26-32.

Chi, I., Mui, C. & Xu, L. (2007). Social gerontology. Taiwan: Wu Nam Publishing Company.

Mjeld-Mossey, L., Wu, B. & Chi, I. (2007). Civic engagement of the oldest-old in Shanghai. Asian Journal of Gerontology & Geriatrics. 2(2), 15-22.

Leung, G., Chan, S.S., Johnston, J.M., Chan, S.K., Woo, P.P., Chi, I. & Lam, T. (2007). Effectiveness of an elderly smoking cessation counselling training programme for social workers: a longitudinal study. Chest. 131(4), 1157-1159.

Ling, Y., Aranda, M. & Chi, I. (2007). Health and life satisfaction of ethnic minority older adults in Mainland China: Effects of financial strain. International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 54(44), 361-379.

Cheng, Y., Chou, K., MacFarland, D. & Chi, I. (2007). Patterns of physical exercise and contributing factors among Hong Kong older adults. Hong Kong Medical Journal. 13(Suppl 4), S7-12.

Leung, A., Ko, P., Chang, K. Chi, I. & Chow, N. (2007). Searching health information via Web: Hong Kong Chinese older adults' experience. Public Health Nursing. 24(6), 169-175.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2007). Temporal relationship between fall and fear of falling in Hong Kong Chinese older primary care patients. Ageing and Society. 27, 181-193.

Chi, I. (2007). Retirement income protection in Hong Kong. In Noriyuki Takayama (Eds.) Research monograph on pensions in Asia. Shanghai, China.

Chi, I. (2006). Older adults in China. In B. Berkman (Eds.) Handbook of social work in health and aging. New York: Oxford University Press.

Li, Y. & Chi, I. (2006). Comparison of health services utilization by Chinese urban and rural older adults in Yunnan province. Geriatrics and Gerontology International. 6, 260-269.

Leung, A., Chi, I., Chow, N. & Chan, K. (2006). Construction and validation of Chinese Value of Learning Scale (CVLS). Educational Gerontology. 32, 1-14.

Chou, K., Chow, N.W. & Chi, I. (2006). Economic status of the elderly persons in Hong Kong: Homogeneous or heterogeneous? International Social Work. 49, 218-232.

Chou, K., Ho, A.H. & Chi, I. (2006). Living alone and depression in Chinese older adults. Aging and Mental Health: An International Journal. 10, 583-591.

Mjelde-Mossey, L.A., Chi, I. & Lou, V.W. (2006). Relationship between adherence to tradition and depression in Chinese elders in China. Aging and Mental Health. 10(1), 19-26.

Chou, K., Chi, I. & Chong, A.M. (2006). The utilisation of aged care services by the frail elderly and their family caregivers. Hong Kong Medical Journal. 12, S11-14.

Chi, I., Chou, K., Kwan, C., Lam, E.K. & Lam, T. (2006). Use of the Minimum Data Set – Home care a cluster randomized controlled trial among the Chinese older adults. Aging and Mental Health: An International Journal. 10(1), 33-39.

Macfarlane, D.J., Chi, I., Cheng, Y. & Chou, K. (2006). Validity and normative data for the 30-second chair stand test in elderly community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese. American Journal of Human Biology. 18, 418-421.

Chou, K.C., Chow, N.W. & Chi, I. (2006). Willingness to consider applying for reverse mortgage in Hong Kong Chinese middle-aged homeowners. Habitat International. 30, 716-727.

Chi, I., Jordan-Marsh, M., McLaughlin, M., Chi, I., Brown, C., Moran, M., Bo, Y. & Cody, M. (2006). St. Barnabas Cyber Café evaluation report 2004-2005: USC School of Social Work and Annenberg School of Communication.

Leung, A., Chi, I. & Lui, Y. (2006). A cross-cultural study in older adults' learning experience. Asian Journal of Gerontology & Geriatrics. 1(2), 78-83.

Chi, I. & Mui, C. (2005). The knowledge and foundation of gerontology. Hong Kong: The Education Research Study.

Chi, I. (2005). Gerontology training in social work education. The changing elderly services. Hong Kong: HKCS Publisher.

Chou, K., Law, W.J. & Chi, I. (2005). Assessing Chinese older adult’s suicidal ideation: Chinese version of geriatric suicide ideation scale. Aging and Mental Health: An International Journal. 9(2), 167-171.

Mjelde-Mossey, L.A., Chi, I. & Lou, V.W. (2005). Assessing tradition in Chinese elders living in a changing social environment: Implications for social work practice. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 11.

Tsoh, J.M., Chiu, H.F., Duberstein, P., Chan, S.S., Chi, I., Yip, P.S. & Conwell, Y. (2005). Attempted suicide in the Chinese elderly: A multi-group controlled study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 13(7), 562-571.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2005). Correlates of five intellectual abilities in Chinese older adults. The Journal of Applied Gerontology. 24(1), 68-83.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2005). Functional disability related to diabetes mellitus in Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Gerontology. 51, 334-339.

Chu, L., Chi, I. & Chiu, A.Y. (2005). Incidence and predictors of falls in the Chinese elderly. Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore. 34, 60-72.

Leung, A., Lui, Y. & Chi, I. (2005). Later life learning experience among Chinese elderly in Hong Kong. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education. 25(2), 1-15.

Woo, J., Chi, I., Hui, E., Chan, F. & Sham, A. (2005). Low staff level is associated with malnutrition in long-term residential care home. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 59(4), 474-479.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2005). Prevalence and correlates of depression in Chinese oldest-old. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 20, 41-50.

Chi, I., Yip, P.S., Chiu, H.F., Chou, K., Chan, K., Kwan, C., Conwell, C. & Caine, E. (2005). Prevalence of depression and its correlates in Hong Kong Chinese older adults. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 13, 409-416.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2005). Prevalence of depression in elderly Chinese with diabetes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 20, 570-575.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2005). Reciprocal relationship between pain and depression in Elderly Chinese Primary Care Patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 20, 945-952.

Chi, I. (2005). Social work in China. International Social Work. 48(4), 371-379.

Chou, K., Ho, H.Y. & Chi, I. (2005). The effect of depression on the use of emergency department services in Hong Kong Chinese older adults with diabetes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 20, 900-902.

Johnston, J.M., Chan, S.S., Chan, S.K., Lam, T. , Chi, I. & Leung, G. (2005). Training nurses & social workers in smoking cessation counseling: a population needs assessment in Hong Kong. Preventive Medicine. 40, 389-406.

Law, A.M. & Chi, I. (2005). Use of and barriers to social service for Chinese Canadians. International Social Work. 48(2), 148-160.

Chou, K., Chi, I. & Chow, N.W. (2005). Voucher system for long term care in Hong Kong. Journal of Aging and Social Policy. 17(2), 85-106.

Mui, C., Chi, I. & Xu, L. (2004). The theory and practice of gerontology. Beijing: Social Sciences Documentation Publishing House.

Chi, I. (2004). Development in long term care for frail elderly people in Hong Kong. In M. Knapp, D. Challis, & A. Netten (Eds.) Long term care: Matching resources and needs. U.K: Gower Publishing, Ashgate.

Chi, I. & Kwan, C.W. (2004). Social development index: The elderly population. In R. J. Estes (Eds.) Social development in Hong Kong: The unfinished agenda. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Chi, I. (2004). The implication of foreign elderly caregiver support service on Hong Kong. In A.Y.H. Kwan, A.C.M. Chan & E.M.F., Leung (Eds.) A reader on integrate services for caregivers. (pp. 17-26). Hong Kong: COSMOS Books Ltd.

Lai, C.K., Chi, I. & Kayser-Jones, J.S. (2004). A randomized controlled trial of a specific reminiscence approach to promote the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. International Psychogeriatric. 16(1), 33-49.

Liu, C., Leung, C., Li, S., Chi, I. & Chow, W. (2004). An experience of social work case management for frail elders in Hong Kong. Geriatrics and Gerontology International. 4(1), 173-177.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2004). Childlessness and psychological well-being in Chinese older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 19, 449-457.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2004). Combined effect of vision and hearing impairment on depression in elderly Chinese. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 19, 825-832.

Chan, A.C., Cheng, S., Chi, I., Phillips, D. & Chan, S.S. (2004). Constructing a quality of life for older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Social Indicators Research. 69, 279-301.

Leung, A.C., liu, C., Chow, N.W. & Chi, I. (2004). Cost benefit analysis of case management project for the community dwelling frail elderly in Hong Kong. The Journal of Applied Gerontology. 23(1), 70-85.

Chi, I. (2004). Cross-national comparison of the profiles of nursing home residents. Geriatrics and Gerontology International. 4, 286-288.

Tjam, E.Y., Fletcher, P.C. & Chi, I. (2004). Cultural and gender diversity in health. STRIDE: Excellence in Seniors Care. 6(1).

Lee, T.M., Yuen, K.S., Chui, L. & Chi, I. (2004). Differential age-related change of prose memory in older Hong Kong Chinese of higher and lower education. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 19, 216-222.

Chou, K., Lee, P.W., Yu, E.C., Macfarlane, D., Cheng, Y., Chan, S.S. & Chi, I. (2004). Effect of Tai Chi on depressive symptoms amongst Chinese older patients with depression: A randomized clinical trials. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 19, 1105-1107.

Chiu, H.F., Yip, P.S., Chi, I., Chan, S., Tsoh, J., Kwan, C., Li, S., Conwell, Y. & Caine, E. (2004). Elderly suicide in Hong Kong – A case controlled psychological autopsy study. Acta. Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 109(4), 299-305.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2004). Factors associated with the use of publicly funded services by Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Social Science & Medicine. 58, 1025-1035.

Chi, I. (2004). Financing long-term care in Asia: A case of Hong Kong. Geriatrics and Gerontology International. 4, 140-142.

Mjelde-Mossey, L.A. & Chi, I. (2004). Gender Differences in Expectations Predictive of Volunteer Experience among Older Chinese Professionals in Hong Kong. Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work. 13, 47-64.

Chou, K., Chow, N.W. & Chi, I. (2004). Leisure participation amongst Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Ageing and Society. 24, 617-629.

Chou, K., Chow, N.W. & Chi, I. (2004). Preventing economic hardship among Hong Kong Chinese elderly. Journal of Ageing and Social Policy. 16(4), 79-97.

Leung, A.C., Chi, I., Yau, D.C., Liu, C., Yeoh, C., Chui, T. & Chow, N.W. (2004). Reducing utilisation of hospital services by case management: a randomised controlled trial. Australian Health Review. 28(1), 79-86.

Chou, K., Chi, I. & Chow, N.W. (2004). Sources of income and depression in Hong Kong elderly Chinese: Mediating effect and moderating effect of social support and financial strain. Aging and Mental Health: An International Journal. 8(3), 212-221.

Chi, I. (2004). The application of resident assessment instrument among the Chinese residents in care facilities in Hong Kong. Geriatrics and Gerontology International. 4, 280-282.

Ng, C.K., Lee, T.M. & Chi, I. (2004). The relationship between living arrangements and the psychological well-being of older people in Hong Kong. Australasian Journal on Ageing. 23(4), 167-171.

Woo, J., Hui, E., Chan, F., Sham, A. & Chi, I. (2004). Use of restraints in long-term residential care facilities in Hong Kong SAR, China: Predisposing factors and comparison with other countries. Journal of Gerontology. 59, M921.

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Yip, P.S., Chi, I., Chiu, H.F. & Kwan, C. (2003). A prevalence study of suicide ideation among elderly in Hong Kong SAR. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 18, 1056-1062.

Chou, K., Chow, N.W. & Chi, I. (2003). Future elderly welfare recipients in Hong Kong. Hallym International Journal of Ageing. 5(2), 183-199.

Chou, K., Chi, I. & Leung, A. (2003). Interest in formal learning among soon-to-be-aged adults in Hong Kong. Educational Gerontology. 29(9), 723-737.

Chou, K. & Chi, I. (2003). Reciprocal relationship between social support and depressive symptoms among Chinese elderly. Aging and Mental Health: An International Journal. 7, 224-231.

Leung, G., Yeung, R.Y., Chi, I. & Chui, L. (2003). The economics of Alzheimer Disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 15, 34-43.

Chou, K., Chow, N.W. & Chi, I. (2003). Volunteering aspirations of Hong Kong Chinese soon-to be-old adults. Activities, Adaptation & Aging. 27(3/4), 79-96.